In concrete terms, a smart city centralised platform is made up of computer servers, databases and software needed to aggregate and analyse data received from various sources. The computing power needs high-bandwidth connections and considerable redundancy to alleviate any equipment failures. The nerve centre may require support from a second facility, which can be activated in case the main one fails. Often, municipalities require the possibly-sensitive data to be stored locally and by an entity that has a noteworthy physical existence in the city.

Many Smart City services rely on centralized architecture that gather data from diverse devices deployed across the city through suitable communication technologies into the control centre in which data is stored and processed.

At the core of the system are backend servers, found in the control centre. Backend servers are a fundamental component in smart cities since they facilitate access to smart city services and even open data via legacy network infrastructure. Often backend systems interface with the Internet of Things (IoT) data feeders that include:

Database management systems that store a huge amount of data generated by IoT peripheral nodes, such as sensors. Thus, regardless of their usage, appropriate dimensioning of backend system is necessary.

Enterprise resource planning systems (ERP) components support various business functions and remain crucial to the management of information flow across intricate organization like city administration.

Automatization trends

The Internet of Things (IoT) is continually-expanding. Simple daily items are being connected. The capability to remotely manage, control and alter work environment is also evolving. The first signs of a smart office came to life when printers became part of the computer network, however with the merging of Internet, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and cellular networks technologies, nearly anything is at the fingertips. Now, the workplace is smart.

Cloud Computing puts new concepts and challenges for smart city applications. System Administrators no longer have to offer servers, install necessary software and even wire up network gadgets since all the work is traded for few clicks and several command line calls. Today, if they can recognize, monitor, scrutinize and observe the load and traffic patterns of applications, then the system administrators are able to monitor this elastic environment very effectively. In cloud computing, there are features that the platform administrator as well as the application owners can utilise in monitoring, managing and administering the components on the platform and the applications that run in the cloud.

Monitoring Console monitors all resources used in the platform services or applications. Cloud computing continuously collects information from servers under control and when one or more constraints reach threshold value, it alerts the operator. Various cloud computing monitoring modules like Zabbix provide several monitoring alternatives that range from modest checks for validating the availability of a server, to more sophisticated measurements such as disk volume occupation, CPU load, network traffic and number of processes among others.

Some actual problems

For cities, problems come from the fact the city is monitored using multiple domains instead of one condensed entity. Because a city is made up of various networks, environments, and infrastructures related to core functions. In simple terms, everyday operations in cities generate a lot of data from various sources that lead problems visualizing and extracting meaningful data. Cities need to address the increased level of service planning and coordination challenges arising from urban sprawl.

Although smart office is valuable, it also has unwanted consequences. The various networked components provide hackers more landscape for attack. And most of the gadgets are not developed to repel attacks. In reality, networked components offer attackers an opportunity to access an enterprise’s network. Thus, a smart office is a hacker’s buffet.

As Smart Cities develop, control systems are becoming more sophisticated, permitting better control and improved reliability. Smart Cities will need higher levels of network connectivity as a way of supporting new sophisticated components. This higher level of connectivity has the likelihood of opening up fresh vulnerabilities. Thus, one of the largest challenges facing the development of Smart Cities is associated with systems cyber security.

Critism & Controversies

The ability to access and monitor systems is a genuine function. When system administrators use a device to evaluate inventory using inventory control management system, cybercriminals may exploit the authen

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