Usually, water damage is an unseen risk under carpets, floorboards, and ceilings, resulting in structural and environmental destruction like dry rot and mold. Water leak detection sensors monitor water presence and send alerts before considerable damage is done to surrounding materials or electronics. There are various types of water detection sensors that range from spot detectors to huge zones or perimeter monitoring using cable-type systems. The sensors have different alert functions and relay activation that ensure users are notified about any possible issues to take steps necessary to rectify the water issue.

Spot leak detectors detect water at a one point and are usually used in areas such as floor drains, drip pans, or even where water seems to converge within confined spaces.

Beneath carpet leak detectors work in the same way as spot detectors, although they are very slim and compact to fit flawlessly under floor coverings. When conductive liquid like water connects the circuit between two probes, alerts are sent.

Hydroscopic tape-based (HTB) sensors often fasten water sensitive tape onto prone structures such as pipes and water containers. When exposed to moisture or water, an alarm is activated.

With various leak detection alternatives available, evaluating the various forms of monitoring required and the suitable implementations is important. Some of the factors to keep in mind include the area to be monitored, changeable sensitivity of the water sensor, the time it takes to reset time when triggered, costs and ease of installation, integration and scalability.

Automatization trends

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) provides valuable prospects for improving the efficiency and productivity within the water sector as a way of contributing to its sustainability. These technologies offer ways for continuously monitoring of water, offering real-time monitoring, enabling appropriate maintenance and optimization of every aspect of the water network.

Smart pipes make use of multifunctional sensors capable of sensing temperature, strain, and pressure abnormalities, as well as measure the flow and quality of water during service, to offer operators continuous monitoring features, while ensuring safe water distribution.

Wireless sensor networks offer the technology for smart cities to be able to accurately monitor, and control water supply systems using various parameters. Examples include the use of sensors that are able to analyse pipe acoustic signature or even monitor soil moisture to detect leaks. Most ICT companies are developing various sensors precisely designed to monitor water networks. Several smart sensors are able to detect flow differences down to 5 liters/minute, allowing early-leak detection; thus, decreasing the likelihood of the pipe breaking. The system is able to report pipe flow measurement data, combine such information into GIS data and send automated alerts to pinpoint the place of possible leaks, allowing prioritization in repair work.

Some actual problems

Sustainable strategies, policies and practices are needed to react to the issues affecting urban water resources. Nevertheless, weak governing water and sanitation frameworks, together with intersecting functions in governmental institutions and agencies, have resulted in unclear division of errands and uncoordinated efforts in water management in cities. In addition, sectoral politicization has nurtured short-term decision-making, and management objectives and strategies are usually limited to the period of the voted government.

Currently, most water monitoring tasks (such as sampling water chemical condition, sediments, or fish tissue in order to guarantee quality) are still performed manually, needing human resources when sampling and carrying out lab analysis. Apart from the cost of maintaining water monitoring system, there are problems linked to provision of effective warning because of lag time between data retrieval and assessment.

To overcome such problems, more water monitoring technologies are striving to provide on-line and real-time water monitoring. Smart sensor networks are being utilized to enhance water resource and in the management of wastewater.

From their initiation, information and communication technologies (ICTs) continue to play pivotal role in cities. Unfortunately, this is often done without taking into consideration the water resource base. Besides, the pursuit of smart water management in cities is to eliminate challenges in urban water management by integrating ICT products, systems and solutions in areas of water management.

Critism & Controversies

Insufficient development of capacity and outmoded management methods results in making of decisions based on insufficient information, or leads to poor execution. The lack of capable staff and pertinent information, makes embracing of novel technologies needed to improve water management in cities unfeasible.

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